Microclimate of the salt room for the bronchopulmonary system and upper respiratory tract
In order to further develop and improve the method of halotherapy, a special clinical, laboratory and functional study of patients with diseases of the bronchopulmonary system and upper respiratory tract was conducted. The study group consisted of 164 patients: 44 men and 120 women aged 18-68 years old (mean age 44 years).
Among them there were 56 patients with bronchial asthma (14 patients with lung disease, 31 patients with moderate severity and 11 patients with a course), 15 patients with asthmatic bronchitis, 18 – chronic bronchitis (in non-obstructive – 10 and obstructive – 8 forms), 6 patients with bronchiectasis disease and secondary chronic bronchitis, 69 patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract. 57% (54 out of 95) patients with HNZL received baseline and symptomatic drug therapy, which included beta-agonists, methylxanthine derivatives, cromoglycuric sodium, inhalation and systemic corticosteroids.
Treatments were performed under conditions of an automatically controlled microclimate of the halo complex. Halotherapy was used in four main modes: 1 – 0.5-1, 2 – 1-2, 3 – 3-5, 4 – 7-9 mg / m³. The course of treatment consisted of 12 – 25 daily sessions lasting 1 hour. When appointing a certain regimen and duration of treatment, the nosological form, its pathogenetic variant, the phase of the disease, the degree of disturbance of bronchial patency were taken into account. Based on the generally accepted clinical and laboratory and functional criteria, an assessment was made of changes in the state of patients after the course of halotherapy. In 86% of patients, treatment with HNZL was effective. Improvement has occurred in 85% of patients with bronchial asthma with a course of mild and moderate severity, 75% – severe course, 87% of patients with asthmatic bronchitis, chronic 98% of bronchitis and bronchiectasis.
The deterioration in the state of patients by the end of the course of halotherapy was not observed. In the analysis of clinical symptoms in patients with HNZL noted the following features. Cough at the beginning of treatment was observed in the overwhelming majority (95%) of cases. By the end of the course of halotherapy, cough is noted in 70% of cases, while there is a significant reduction in cases of severe paroxysmal ineffective cough, in most patients it becomes easily productive. In 81% of patients with HNZL at the beginning of the course of halotherapy there was a respiratory discomfort, and in 1/3 (32%) cases – in the form of repeated recurring attacks of myocardial infarction, localized only after the combined administration of medications. After treatment, respiratory discomfort persisted in half of patients, and in the vast majority of them, discomfort is classified as very mild in the form of difficult breathing. The use of controlled microclimate has significantly reduced the number of bronchospastic reactions occurring during treatment. The excipient dispenser appeared or intensified on different terms of treatment in only 15% of cases. These were patients with clinical signs of high hypersensitivity of the bronchi, the effect of treatment in them is practically absent. Previously, the development of bronchospastic reactions could be due to the irritant effect of the inadequate aerodisperse environment. These observations suggest the development of bronchospasm reaction during halotherapy is undesirable.
Individual evaluation of FDD showed that at the beginning of the course of treatment of the violation of bronchial patency recorded in 60% of cases, of which 1/3 of the patients they were significant and sharp. By the end of the course of the violation of bronchial patency noted in half of the patients, among them increased the proportion of lung and moderate, and the proportion of significant and sharp significantly decreased by almost 1.7 times. The dynamics of taking corticosteroids in the process of halotherapy was as follows. Half of the patients had abolished forced treatment. Basically, there were cases where corticosteroids, mainly inhalants, were prescribed as anti-inflammatory treatments. Tertiary patients managed to reduce the dose of substitution corticosteroid therapy, the rest of the dose of corticosteroids remained the same, however, it should be noted that the original status of most of them required an increase in the dose.
Patients receiving inhaled beta-agonists in 60% of cases were able to stop their intake or reduce the multiplicity and dose of admission. Good results were achieved with the use of halotherapy for the treatment of azotomy rhinitis neurovergetative and allergic form (38% of cases). Improvement of nasal breathing occurred in 98% of cases. Objective evidence of the positive effect was a decrease of 21%, on average in the group, of the nasal resistance measured by the method of bodipletizmografii. At the same time, in patients with radiological signs of edema subarachnoid sinuses, after halotherapy, there was a significant reduction until complete disappearance. In patients with chronic tonsillitis (18 persons) under the influence of halotherapy decreased the subjective and objective signs of concomitant pharyngitis, in half of cases there was a departure of caseogenesis of tonsils and their purification. During the observation period from six months to a year the exacerbation of the process was not observed. Halotherapy was used as a rehabilitation method in patients after endorse and endorrhagic operations (13 observations).
The treatment contributed to accelerating the healing of the postoperative wound due to the apparent anti-inflammatory action of the aerosol. In addition, in patients with acute and prolonged sinusitis on the background of halotherapy with repeated punctures there is no purulent content, which confirms the data on the bactericidal action of halotherapy. Thus, based on the use of various parameters of the aerodisperse environment controlled microclimate halocomplex developed criteria for the appointment of treatment taking into account the nosological form diseases of the respiratory organs, its pathogenetic variant, the degree of obstructive disorders. A differentiated approach to the method of assignment allowed for its significant effect to achieve a reduction in the frequency and severity of unwanted bronchospastic reactions during treatment. There is a positive effect in the treatment of patients with severe bronchial obstruction, severe bronchial asthma. For the first time the possibility of using halotherapy for the treatment of ENT diseases is substantiated. The application of the controlled therapeutic microclimate halokompleks allowed to significantly improve the technique of halotherapy, bring it closer to modern medical technology.